AP European History

AP European History

2016 - 2017 Course Syllabus


1. Introduction:

This course will cover European history from the High Renaissance (c. 1450) to the present. It covers all major aspects of European history during that period including: political, diplomatic, intellectual, cultural, economic and social. In addition, the course deals extensively with learning how to read, understand, analyze and interpret a wide variety of both primary and secondary texts together with the maps, graphs and pictorial materials associated with them. The course also aims to help students to put the knowledge and understanding they are gaining into practice through sharpening their oral and written communication skills. This will be achieved in two ways: First, through regular class discussions and occasional assigned oral presentations or debates. Second, through the regular writing of focused essays that require both knowledge and analytical and interpretive skills. Though challenging, this course is extremely important in understanding the world in which we live today and students will be rewarded in a myriad of ways for the effort they put into it. Finally, if the past is any guide to the present – and I believe that you will learn that it is – this course will be one the most enjoyable that you will ever take in your high school career. It will end, informally of course, after the AP exams with our traditional end of the year AP European History dinner in May.


2. Course Requirements:

This AP European History course is taught at a college level and the expectations for students will be equivalent to that level. We will begin with some assignments relating to historiography and to understanding present day Europe. This will enable us to follow and discuss current events in Europe on a regular basis throughout the year and to understand them more and more in their historical light. On average an AP European History student should expect to spend about one hour per day on this course outside of class. In particular, a great deal of reading will be required both from the main text and from other secondary, and especially, primary sources. Students must keep up with their readings! Lectures will not simply go over the material in the text. Instead, they will augment it and go beyond it. Good note-taking is essential! The classes will also include regular oral participation and group work. Despite being justly committed to having an open AP enrollment policy at our school, we have had outstanding success by our students on the AP European History exam in the past. This shows that for students who accept the challenge, hard work and effort can pay off, not only in terms of personal growth, but also in academic achievement. However, it must be emphasized that AP courses and exams are at a high college level and college-like maturity and study habits are expected. Trimester grades will be determined according to the following approximate breakdown: 30% on Essays, 40% on Tests, and 30% on Class Discussion, Debates, and Presentations. The Yearly Grade will consist of: Three Trimester Grades of 25% each (= 75%) + Mid-term Exam of 10% + Final project of 15% = 100% total.


3. Main Text and Additional Sources:


The Main Text and Others:

R.R. Palmer, Joel Colton and Lloyd Kramer, A History of the Modern World. New York: Knopf Publishing Group 11th Edition. We will cover this book almost in its entirety since almost all the topics are related directly or indirectly to our subject. For Maps, Charts, Tables and Pictures we will also use the excellent

presentations in our main text as our first source but we will also use other sources, especially sources from the Internet.




Our introductory work is: John Lukacs, A Student’s Guide to the Study of History. Wilmington, Delaware: ISI Books. This very short book (47 pages) will be our first reading assignment. The principles of historiography – the history of history - are introduced very well in this book. We will also draw on Lukacs’ work along with many other voices to study the history of history throughout the course.




Most articles on European current events, etc. will come from The Economist magazine, The Guardian newspaper, The Atlantic magazine, or their web-sites. In addition students will be expected to keep up with European current events so that we can discuss them on an on-going basis.


Primary Documents Sources:

Primary sources will be from books and Internet sources. Books include: Milton Viorst, Editor, The Great Documents of Western Civilization. New York, Barnes & Noble Books. There is so much available on the Internet that we will primarily use sites such as:





Guest Speakers and Field Trips:

To help us with our understanding of European history we will endeavor to have guest speakers who can speak from their own personal experience or expertise about life and history in Europe. In addition we will have special presentations about European art and music from the different historical periods. As appropriate we will also attend public presentations or take field trips that will enhance our understanding of European history or current European life.


4. Course Outline:

In order to maintain continuity between class and homework we will normally follow the chronological and topical arrangement of our main text A History of the Modern World by Palmer, et al. This book, which has gone through many editions, is a classic and it is hard to improve much on its arrangement of the material. The Course Outline that follows below is presented in a basic outline form under Units (marked by Roman Numerals and Bold-face Type), Major Topics (marked by capital letters) and Sub-Topics (marked by numbers). Next to the Sub-Topics are the corresponding regular readings from the main text of Palmer, et al. These readings will be designated by the # of the topic in the main text along with page numbers such as (# 9 p. 77-89). Primary Document Readings will be assigned as appropriate to correspond with the given topic and regular readings. In addition to the readings the student should pay close attention to all of the maps, illustrations, graphs, pictures and other aids to learning in the main text. These are all an intricate part of the book and are emphasized throughout the course.


Each reading should be completed before the class period in which the topic begins to be covered. Other articles, readings and primary texts will be assigned as appropriate and should also be completed before the period in which the topic begins to be covered. We will not, however, spend the same amount of time on each topic. This will depend on the importance of the topics as well as on the interests of both the teacher and students. However, the above method of study will ensure that all of the most important material is thoroughly covered through readings, primary sources, lectures and discussions. Some sort of notebook system should be maintained by all students so as to arrange all readings, lecture-notes, hand-outs, etc under the given topic. All essays, debates, presentation, and tests are marked by an *. These will be the determinants of your trimester grades. Many of the essay and discussion topics are stated in the syllabus but these are subject to change and the precise essay question will be given only when it is assigned.


First Trimester


Unit I.: The Foundations and Birth of ‘Europe’


Special Assignments: read Lukacs’ introduction on the study of history, memorize map of present day Europe, find and peruse the official EU web-site, become familiar with its basic history and structure, and read all you can about Europe including news articles of relevance. This year, an analysis of the “Brexit” referendum in the UK will be a specific topic of focus.


Primary source readings for Unit I:

Burkhardt, Machiaveli, Castiglione, Erasmus, Sir Thomas More, Luther, Tyndale, Zwingli, Calvin, the Anabaptists, The Peace of Augsburg, Henry VIII, Elisabeth I, The Thirty Nine Articles, the Council of Trent, Ignatius Loyola, the Polish Brethren and the Treaty of Westphalia.


A. Introduction: Europe Today and the Study of its History


1. Welcome Back: policies, procedures and syllabus for the course.

2. Discussion of first reading assignment: John Lukacs, A Student’s Guide to the Study of History.

3. Go over present day map of Europe and its features including current European Union (EU) members.

4. Discussion of the history and structure of the EU based on readings from its official web-site and from articles in The Economist, The Guardian, etc.

5. Developing a timeline of European History for our classroom


*Discussion: “A Philosophy of History or a Historical Philosophy?”


*Map Study and Discussion: Review and Discuss the map of present day Europe.


*Test: Present Day Map of Europe and Timeline of the Development of the EU


B. Europe’s Background: Classical Europe and The Formation of European Christendom


1. Europe’s Classical Heritage: Greece, Rome and Christianity (# 1 p. 10-17)

2. The Middle Ages – an Overview (#’s 2,3,4 p. 18-46)

3. The Effects of 14th Century Disasters (# 5 p. 47-53)

4. Special Topic: Christendom on the Eve of the Modern Era: Doctrine and Practice


Map and Chart Study: Study Maps and Charts in Palmer, et al., on p. 4-5, 22, 43, 50.


*Essay and Discussion: The Idea of Europe – What Did it Mean and Who Did it Include? Classical, Christian and Geographical Elements


*Test: Multiple Choice


C. The Renaissance and the Reformation: the Birth and Birth-Pangs of Modern Europe


1. The Italians Renaissance: Humanism and Individualism, God-inspired, Secular or Pagan? The Concept of a Renaissance Man. Possible examples: DaVinci, Erasmus, a Courtier?” (# 6 p. 54-67)

2. The Northern Renaissance: the Renaissance and the Church, the Bible in its Original Languages, The Effects on Church Doctrine and Practice; the Effects on Science (# p. 68-70)


*Essay and/or Discussion: What is a ‘Renaissance Man’? Who Would Qualify? Da Vinci, Erasmus, a Courtier? Later Historical Candidates (Historiography: Readings from Burkhardt, Castiglione, Paul Johnson, Jacque Barzun, and others)


3. The New Political Order of Europe: the New Monarchies of England, France and Spain and the Holy Roman Empire under the Habsburgs (#8 p.71-76)

4. The Protestant Reformation (or Revolution?): by Faith Alone, by Scripture Alone, and the Priesthood of all Believers; the Religious, Political and Social Effects; the Different Protestant Groups (#9 p. 77-89)

5. The Catholic (or Counter?) Reformation: Catholicism Reexamined, Reorganized and Reinvigorated; the Importance of the Council of Trent; the Role of the Jesuits (#10 p. 90-97)

6. Special Topic: The Polish Rzeczpospolita (Commonwealth): A Bastion of Political and Religious Freedom in 16th Century Europe


*Essay and Discussion: The Protestant Reformation: Reformation or Revolution? What Changed? The Spiritual, Political and Social Effects (Historiography: Readings from Roland Bainton, Jacques Barzun, and others)


*Chart Discussion and Formulation: Make a Chart where you compare and contrast the Beliefs of Luther, Calvin, the Church of England, the Anabaptists, and the Roman Catholic Church. Be succinct, abbreviate and only include on the chart the following topics: 1. Salvation by faith, works, or both. 2. The sacraments – list them. 3. Predestination 4. Baptism 5. The Lord’s Supper 6. Church and State Relationship


*Test: Multiple Choice


D. Europe Re-shaped, Re-vitalized and Ravaged: Exploration, Commercialization, and the Wars of Religion


1. Atlantic Exploration and the Development of Mercantilism (#11 p. 97-103)

2. The Commercial Revolution (#12 p. 99-104)

3. Understanding the Social Structures of Europe: Continuity and Change (#112 p. 112-117)

4. Spanish leadership under Phillip II of the Catholic Reformation – Effects on England and the Dutch; the War of the Spanish Armada and the Opening of the Atlantic (#14 p. 118-126); the Beginning of Spain’s Long Decline

5. France: Catholics, Huguenots, and ‘the Price of a Mass’ (# 15 p. 127-132)

6. The Devastation of the Thirty Years’ War and the Ending of the Wars of Religion with the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 (#16 p. 133-142)

7. Special Topic: Richelieu and the Beginnings of “Realpolitik” in European Diplomatic History

8. Special Presentation: Art in the Renaissance and Reformation Era


*Map and Chart Study Exercise: Study the maps and charts of Europe presented in Palmer, et al. (p. 50, 76, 86, 99, 124, 140-141) from the eve of the beginning of the Reformation (c. 1500) until after the Treaty of Westphalia (1648). Analyze the Political, Religious, Demographic and Economic Changes indicated by the Maps Studied. List the Main Points of Your Analysis


*Discussion of Map and Chart Study


*Test: Multiple Choice


Unit I Review


**Unit I Test: Multiple Choice and DBQ: the Role of Reason in the Renaissance and Reformation


End of First Trimester


Unit II: The Rise and Leadership of Western Europe: Scientific Knowledge, Political Organization, Economic and Cultural Supremacy


Primary Source Readings include: Hobbes, Locke, Voltaire, Rousseau, Montesquieu, Wesley, Whitfield, Franklin and Jefferson


A. The Scientific Revolution: the Development of a New (or Modified) World-View


1. Bacon and Descartes: the Development of the Scientific Method (#32 p. 265-271)

2. Copernicus to Galileo: from Geo-centrism to Helio-centrism and relations with the church(es) (#33 p. 271-276)

3. The Primacy of Newton in the Development of the Scientific View: Natural Laws and Natural Rights (#33 p. 276-280)

4. The Rise of Empiricism and the Conflict (or Cooperation?) between Science and Religion (*34 p. 280-287)

5. From Natural Laws to Natural Rights: Thomas Hobbes vs. John Locke or Absolutism vs. Representative Government (*35 p. 288-294)

6. Special Topic: the ‘Scientists’ of the Scientific Revolution – What Kind of World – View? Cartesian? God-centered or Man-centered? Bacon, Descartes, Pascal, and Newton


*Essay and Discussion: the Scientific Method and Cartesian Dualism


*Test: Multiple Choice


B. The Rise of West European Nation-States: Absolutism vs. Constitutionalism and the Development of an Advanced Western Society


1. Focus on France: The Triumph of the Sun-King in France; Louis the XIV, Absolutism and the Primacy of French Power, Culture and Influence; The Wars of Louis XIV and the Balance of Power in Europe at the Conclusion of The Treaty of Utrecht (#17 p. 143-147, #21 p. 167-178, #22 p. 179-186)

2. Focus on the Dutch: the Struggles of Small Republic; Relations with England and France; Calvinism and the Role of Religion; A People Focused on Commerce (#18 p. 147-153)

3. Focus on Britain: the Rise of Constitutional Government and the Victory of Parliament over the Crown; the 17th Century Struggles, the English Civil War, the Experiment in Puritan Republicanism; the Glorious Revolution and the English Bill of Rights (#19 p. 153-160, #20 p.160-166)

4. The Structure of Western Society: Elite and Popular Cultures, National Languages, the Role of Religion (#28 p. 226-232)

5. The Development of a Global Economy: The Dutch and British Lead the Way (#29 p. 233-230)

6. Western Europe after the Treaty of Utrecht and the “First World War” (the Seven Years War) of the Mid-Eighteenth Century (#30 p. 241-248, #31 p. 241-264)


*Essay and Discussion: A Study in Contrasting Theologies (or Ideologies?): Absolutism by Divine Right (Bousseau) or Representative Government by Consent of the Governed (Locke)?


*Test: Multiple Choice


C. The Contrast in Eastern Europe: Decline, Rise, and Disappearance


1. The Holy Roman Empire, The Polish Commonwealth, The Ottoman Empire: three Empires in Decline. Decentralization, Decay and Fragmentation (#23 p. 188-196)

2. The Rise of Austria, Prussia and Russia: three Absolutist Empires on the Rise in the East; the Role of the “Fredericks” in Prussia, Peter the Great’s “Westernization” in Russia, and the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy in a Multi-Ethnic Empire (#24 p. 197-201, #25 p. 201-209, #26 p. 209-220)

3. The Partitions and Disappearance of Poland (#27)


*Essay and Discussion: Centralized or Decentralized Government – the Strange Case of the Polish ‘Liberum Veto’; Can “Rights” Go too Far? Compare the U.S. Articles of Confederation (Historiography: Readings from Adam Zamoyski and Alexander Gieysztor)


*Test: Multiple Choice


D. The Enlightenment in 18th Century Europe


1. The British Enlightenment: Newton, Locke and their Heirs – including Voltaire and Montesquieu (#35 p. 288-296)

2. The French Enlightenment: the Philosophes; Voltaire’s Central Role; Montesquieu, and Rousseau; Comparing the Philosophes (#36 p. 296-308)

3. Reason and Reaction: John Wesley, George Whitfield and the Spiritual Awakening in England and America; European Pietism (#36 p. 297)

4. Enlightened Despots: France (?), Austria, Prussia and Russia (?) (#37 p. 308-317, #38 p. 317-323)

5. The Push for Reform in 18th Britain: Enlightened Thought and Religious Revival leads to a Movement for Practical Reforms in Britain (#39 p. 323-331)

6. The American Revolution: One Glorious Revolution Breeds Another (#40 p. 331-343)

7. European Art and Music in the 17th and 18th Centuries


*Map and Chart Study: Study and Analyze Maps, Charts and Tables in Palmer, et. al., (p. 145, 163, 177, 1713, 190, 192, 199, 206-207, 220-221, 223, 1763, 283, 310)


*Essay and Discussion: Natural Rights in the Views of Newton, Locke, Voltaire, Montesquieu, Jefferson, Madison and Rousseau


*Test: Multiple Choice


Unit II Review


**Unit II Test: Multiple Choice and DBQ: the Development of the British Concept of Natural Rights


Unit III: The French Revolution and the Napoleonic Era


Primary Source Readings include: Abbe’ Sieyes, The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, Paine, Burke, The Napoleonic Code, The Congress of Vienna


A. The French Revolution


1. Background and Causes: The Three Estates, Enlightenment Ideas, the Financial Crises (#41 p. 343-348)

2. Revolution and Reorganization: the National Assembly, the Tennis Court Oath, Constitutional Monarchy, Louis XVI (#42 p. 348-363)

3. The Reaction in Europe, the Threat to other Monarchies, the War and the Second Revolution (#43 p. 363-367)

4. The Emergency Republic and the Reign of Terror; The National Convention, Robespierre and the Committee for Public Safety (# 44 p. 367-377)

5. The Constitutional Republic under the Directory (#45 p. 377-382)

6. The Authoritarian Republic under the Consulate: Sieves, Napoleon and the Coup d’Etat, the rule of Napoleon (#45 p. 382-389)


*Discussion: Historiography - Comparing Different Historical Views of the French Revolution (e.g. Burke, Lafayette, Carlyle, de Tocqueville)


B. The Napoleonic Era


1. The Crowning of Emperor Napoleon and Beginnings of The Second French Empire (#47 389-398)

2. Taking the Revolution to Europe and Abroad: Napoleon’s Conquering of Europe, his Method of Organization and Rule, Nepotism, the Napoleonic Code for Europe? (#48 p. 398-403)

3. The Continental System: Economic Warfare in the War between France and Britain; Success or Failure? (#49 p. 403-409)

4. The Awakening of Nationalism: A Case Study of Germany; the Other European Nationalities (#50 p. 409-414)

5. The Defeat of Napoleon and the “Restored” European Order of the Congress of Vienna: the Disaster of the Russian Campaign; Exile; Waterloo; The Quadruple Alliance; The Balance of Power; The Peace of Vienna (#51 p. 414-426)

6. Art: Examining the Art of the French Revolutionary Era


*Map and Chart Study: Study and Analyze Maps and Charts in Palmer, et. al., on p. 381, 400, 403, 424.


*Essay and Debate: “Napoleon: Last of the Enlightened Despots or First of the Modern Dictators?”


**Unit III Test: Multiple Choice and DBQ: “The Causes of the French Revolution”



Mid-term Exam:


Week 1: Mid-term Exam Review


Week 2: Mid-term Exam – Two Hour AP Practice Exam: Multiple Choice and DBQ: “The Rights of Man”: Comparing and contrasting the English Bill of Rights, The US Declaration of Independence and Bill of Rights, and the French: The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen


Second Trimester


Unit IV: The Nineteenth Century – Century of “Progress” and “Peace”?


Primary Source Readings for Unit IV: Metternich, Alexander I, Malthus, Smith, Ricardo, Bentham, Mill, Dickens, Spencer, Marx and Engels, Darwin, Wagner, Comte, Strauss, Renan, Hort and Westcott, Bismarck


A. The Mixture of Reaction vs. Progress (1815-1848)


1. The Industrial Revolution in Britain, Western Europe and America (#52 p. 429-436)

2. The Age of “Isms”: Cultural, Political, Economic and Social (#53 p. 436-451)

3. Inside the European “Nations”: France, Poland, The German States, Britain in the face of rising Liberalism (#54 p. 451-454)

4. The International System: revolts across Europe and Latin America; the Breakdown of the Congress System (#55 p. 454-461)

5. Liberalism Gains a Foothold and Begins to Spread: Revolutions of 1830-32, Reform in Great Britain, The Repeal of the Corn Laws in 1846 and its Significance (#55 p. 461-469)

6. The West European Bourgeoisie and their Heyday in Europe; the Challenge by Labor, the Poor Laws, the Chartist Movement – Success or Failure? (#56 p. 469-474)


*Discussion and Chart Progress: Discussion of the “Isms”; Make a Chart Comparing the “Isms” – Political, Economic, Social and Cultural



B. The Year of Revolution (1848) and the Restoration of Order


1. Attempts at Revolution in Europe – three Case Studies: Paris, Vienna, and Germany (#58 p. 475-482, #59 p. 482-489, #60 p. 489-495)

2. Shattered Revolutionary Illusions and a New Outlook – Three Alternatives: Realism, Positivism and Marxism (#61 p. 495-503)

3. The Second French Empire: the Reign of Louis Napoleon III (#62 p. 503-508).


*Essay and Discussion: “Revolutionaries” - Who Were They? Characteristics of a Revolutionary Then and Beyond (Historiography: Readings from J.W. Burrow, Jacques Barzun, and John Lukacs)


*Test for A and B: Multiple Choice



C. Unification and Consolidation of European Nation-States


1. The Nation-State Idea – the influence of the French Revolution, Napoleon, Romanticism and Nationalistic Writers (#63 p. 509-513)

2. The First Case Study: the Unification of Italy – Mazzini, Cavour, Victor Emmanuel II, Garibaldi, and the Role of French under Napoleon III (#64 p. 513-517)

3. The Second Case Study: the Unification of Germany – the Central Role of Bismarck, Diplomacy and Wars, The Franco-Prussian War and Commune of Paris (#65 p. 517-526)

4. A Special Case Study: the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy: the New Realities of European Politics (#66 p. 526-530)

5. A Softening of Autocracy (for a While): Tsarist Russia under Alexander II; Softening Compared to What? Were the Russian People Really any Better Off? (#67 p. p. 530-535)

6. Briefly: Civil War in America and European Connections, The Dominion of Canada, and Japan’s New Relationship to the West (#68 p. 535-540, #69 p. 540-543, #70 p. 543-55)


*Essay and Discussion: European Diplomatic History – Comparing and Contrasting the Diplomacy of Cavour and Bismarck



D. European Civilization 1871-1914


1. The Concept of the Civilized World (#71 p. 551-55)

2. Population Increase in Europe and its Effects on Society (#72 p. 555-564)

3. Europe and the World Economy of the Nineteenth Century (#73 p. 564-574)

4. Democratic Advances in France, the United Kingdom and Germany: the Third Republic and the Primacy of Parliament in France; the spread of suffrage in Britain and the Politics of Liberals, Conservatives and Labor; Bismarck Co-ops the Socialist Program in Germany; the Threat of Radicals in Europe (#74 p. 574-589)

5. The Decline of Classical Liberalism: Liberalism and Socialism – “the Big Switch” (#77 p. 607-612)

6. Other Advances in Democracy: the Influence of Socialism, the Rise of Labor Unions, the European Feminist Movement (#75 p. 589-597)

7. The Cultural Situation in Europe:

a. The Philosophy of ‘Progress’ – from Kant and Hegel to Comte and Nietzsche

b. The Reign of ‘Science’ from Lyell to Darwin to Einstein

c. Special Topic: The Battle Over the Bible and Christian Faith– The ‘Higher Criticism” of the Tubingen ‘History of Religions School’ from Strauss to Harnack vs. the Oxford ‘Historical-Critical’ Method of Biblical Studies of Westcott, Hort and Lightfoot (#76 p. 597-607)


*Essay and Discussion: The ‘Death of God’ in a Missionary Age (Historiography: Readings from A.N. Wilson, J.W. Burrow, Jacques Barzun and John Lukacs)


*Test for C and D: Multiple Choice



E. The Age of Imperialism: Europe Reigns Supreme 1871-1914


1. Understanding Imperialism: Imperialism Defined, Different Types, Reasons for its Existence (#78 p. 613-622)

2. American Imperialism? From East to West and the Spanish American War (#79 p. 622-627)

3. The Sick Man of Europe: the Ottoman Empire Begins to Slowly Fall Apart; the Implications for the Balance of Power in Europe; Who Picks up the Pieces? The Young Turks (#80 p. 627-633)

4. Case Study One: European Imperialism in Africa – the Partition of Africa; the Congress of Berlin; the Situation of the European Powers in Africa; the Situation of the African People in Africa (#81 p. 633-642)

5. Case Study Two: European Imperialism in Asia - The British, the French, the Dutch and the Russians (#82 p. 642-648)

6. Case Study Three: Spheres of Influence in China (#83 p. 648-653)

7. The Russo-Japanese War: the Prize of Manchuria; The Japanese Victory and Implications of the Russian Defeat (#84 p. 653-656)


*Map and Chart Study and Discussion: Study and Analyze the Maps, Charts and Tables in Palmer, et al. on p. 434, 437, 448, 486, 516, 522, 528-529, 546, 556, 560, 561, 562, 571, 632, 637, 640, 646-647, 649, 652, 661, 665.


*Essay and Discussion: Imperialism – Good, Bad, or a Combination? Its Effects on the Subjugated Peoples and the Imperialists Themselves


Unit IV Review


**Unit IV Test: Multiple Choice and DBQ: The Role of Art, Music and Literature in 19th Century Europe



Unit V: The Great War, its Aftermath, and a Greater War to Come 1914-1945


Primary Documents for Unit V: Lenin, Wilson, The Treaty of Versailles, Mussolini, Hitler, Churchill, De Gaulle, the Atlantic Alliance, The United Nations Charter, Sartre


A. The Collapse of the Ancien Regime: The Great War and its Devastating Effects on Europe and the World


1. The Causes: Nationalism, Imperialism, Militarism, the Alliance System, Social Darwinism; the Breakdown of the European System; the Popular Expectations (#85 p.657-666)

2. Stalemate: the failure of the Schlieffen Plan and the onset of Trench Warfare (#86 p. 666-674)

3. The Russian Revolution and the Collapse of the Eastern Front; Negotiated Settlement with the Bolsheviks (#87 p. 674-679, #91 p. 697-707, #92 p. 707-712, #93 p. 712-719)

4. The Defeat of the Central Powers and the Collapse of their Empires (#88 p. 679-680)

5. The Devastating Effects of the War: Personal, Economic, Social and Cultural (#89 p 681-687)


*Essay and Discussion: The Paris Peace Conference and the Treaty of Versailles - Could They Have Done Better? Should They Have Done Better? What Were the Views at the Time? (Historiography: Readings from Paul Johnson, Martin Gilbert, and Jacques Barzun)


*Graphically Illustrate the Effects of the Great War on the Wars of Subsequent Twentieth Century History



B. Between the Wars: the Rise and Fall of Democracies


1. A ‘World Made Safe for Democracy”: New Nation-States and New Democracies (#97 p. 743-748, #98 p. 748-753)

2. The Great Depression and its Effects on America, Europe and the World (#100 p.764-773, #101 p.774-777)

3. Britain and France: the Trials and Tribulations of Democracy (#102 p. 777-785)

4. Three Totalitarian Ideologies and Regimes:

a. USSR: Marxism, Leninism, Stalinism and the Classless (?) “Workers Paradise” (#94 p. 719-728, #95 p.728-739, #96 p. 739-742)

b. Italy: Italian Fascism, Mussolini and the Corporate Nation-State (#103 p. 785-790)

c. Germany: Hitler, the Master Race and the Thousand Year Reich (#104 p. 790-800)

5. The Spanish Civil War as a Precursor to World War (#105 p. 805-807)

6. Special Topic/Field Trip: the Art of the Early to Mid Twentieth Century


*Essay and Discussion: Compare and Contrast the Ideologies of Communism, Fascism, and Nazism



C. The Second World War


1. The Road to War: the Policy of Appeasement, Reasons for it, Should the West Have Know Better?; The Rhineland, the Anschluss, Munich, The Nazi-Soviet Pact (#105 p. 801-809)

2. The Phony War, The Battle of Britain, Axis Advances (#105 p. 809-816)

3. The American, British and Soviet Alliance Brings Victory (#107 p. 816-828)

4. The Principles, Conferences and Agreements for Peace: the Role of the Big Three; the Significance of Yalta for WWII and Beyond (#108 p. 828-832)


*Essay and Discussion: “The Hitler of History”; Who Was He? A Madman? An Evil Genius? Other? To What Degree Was He Responsible for WWII? (Historiography: John Lukacs, Heiden, Bullock, Fest, Tolbert, Kershaw and, Irving)


Unit V Review


**Unit V Test: Multiple Choice and DBQ: The Policy of Appeasement and the Diplomacy of World War II – the Role of Statesmen



Unit VI: The Cold War, its Collapse and the Building of a New Europe


Primary Source Documents: Churchill, Schuman, Monnet, Adenauer, De Gasperi, De Gaulle, Khrushchev, Solzhenitsyn, The Brezhnev Doctrine, The Helsinki Accords, Thatcher, John Paul II, Walesa, Gorbachev


A. Europe: from the End of WWII to the Mid and Late 1950s


1. The Beginnings of the Cold War: the Atomic Age, Yalta and its Aftermath, Churchill’s Iron Curtain Speech, the Division of Europe, the Marshall Plan, The Truman Doctrine, The Berlin Airlift, NATO and the Warsaw Pact (#109 p. 833-849)

2. The Communist World: the USSR and the Soviet Bloc (#113 p. 869-875)

3. Western Europe and its Economic and Political Reconstruction: Britain, France, Italy and the Low Countries; the German Federal Republic; the Beginnings of European Unity: the ECSE and the Treaty of Rome; the Role of West European Leaders such as Churchill, Atlee, De Gaulle, De Gasperi, Adenauer, Schuman and Monnet (#110 p. 849-853, #111 p. 853-863, #112 p. 863-869)


*Essay and Discussion: the Causes of the Cold War; Who Was to Blame? (Historiography: Readings from Richard Pipes, Paul Johnson, John Lewis Gaddis, Robert Conquest, Martin Walker, Brian Crozier, and

John Lukacs)


*Test: Multiple Choice



B. Europe from the Late 1950’s to the Fall of Communism


1. The Collapse of the European Empires: British, Dutch and French and the Rise of the Third World (#115 p. 881-896, #116 p. 896-917, #117 p. 917-935, #118 p. 935-944, #119 p. 944-950)

2. Western Europe: From the Economic Miracle to the ECC, the EC and the EU; Freedom and Prosperity Under the American Shield (#121 p.966-977)

3. The Cold War: from Confrontation to Détente (#120 p. 951-952, #122 p. 977-982, #123 p. 982-986)

4. Special Topic: Life in the Communist World - Social Conditions in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union

5. The Cold War: from Re-Confrontation to Collapse (#124 p. 987-993, #125 p. 993-1001, #126 p. 1001-1005)


*Essay and Discussion: What Caused the Collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union? Long-term Causes and Short-term Causes (Historiography: Readings from Gorbachev, Schevardnadze, James Baker, Pipes, Johnson, Gaddis, Conquest, Walker, Crozier, and Lukacs)


**Test: Multiple Choice




C. Europe: Post-Communist Europe and The European Union (#s 127-129 p. 1005-1056)



1. Europe After the Fall of Communism: Disintegration and Reintegration – the Growth of NATO and the EU

2. Europe After the Fall of Communism: Disintegration, Civil War and ...? Russia, Belarus, Serbia and Others


*Discussion - Europe Re-defined: What is ‘Europe’ Now? Who is a ‘European’?


Unit VI Review


**Unit VI Test: Multiple Choice and DBQ: What is ‘Europe’ Now?



AP Exam Review: Format of the Exam, Review of the Material, and Practice AP Exams


AP Exam: Friday, May 12th – Afternoon session


After the AP Exams are over we will do a variety of activities until the end of school. These will include discussing AP Current Events, Special Videos, Field Trips and the Traditional AP European History Dinner.